There are three types of anxiety in language learning. Anxiety is an affective factor and, like most affective factors, such as tiredness, boredom and emotional disturbances, anxiety can have an adverse effect on learning a second language.
One type of anxiety is trait anxiety, which Rod Ellis refers to as “the disposition to be anxious” (1994). This is a general characteristic within the general personality of a person. The second type of anxiety is known as “state anxiety”, which is based on the student’s reaction to a specific learning situation, such as taking a test or reciting an oral presentation. This is anxiety based on a specific learning situation. The third type is situation-specific anxiety, which is based on the general orientation of anxiety that is based on certain learning contexts in which a learner is not perceived as fit or linguistically capable of acquiring competence in speaking and/or contexts. or reading. Anxiety can have a debilitating effect (increasing anxiety about learning) or a facilitating effect (relieving anxiety about learning). Ellis relates anxiety as a result due to the following factors:
1. Competitive Natures of Students
2. Teachers’ questions are threatening
3. Lack of a relaxed atmosphere in a second language
Some learners tend to disengage when faced with a potentially threatening learning environment. On the contrary, the disengage strategy can be used by good students who find the material in language classes boring, not challenging enough, etc. By using the disengage strategy, anxious students
1. Trying to find a gap in teaching methodology and learning opportunities and therefore want to bridge that gap but are too anxious and therefore unable to bridge the gap.
2. By disengaging, they can make their learning more enjoyable and opportunistic or disengage completely due to perceived threat.
In addition, students follow the shutdown strategy to analyze a specific language learning task, function, or item. These students are generally dependent on the learning process and often let their emotions interfere with the learning process. The degree of anxiety can also be intensified by some factors, which are often overlooked:
1. age: varies between adults and children and the learning context in question.
2. Motivated: how motivated is the student to study the second language
3. Self-image. Does the student have enough self-confidence?
Because anxious learners are generally tied down by emotional elements, they often do not have enough self-awareness to regulate their learning and are unable to return to a specific learning context. They are also unable to remember the content of the previous lesson.
Rod Ellis. (1994) Acquisition of a second language. Oxford University Press.
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